The fall of Saddam Hussein in and the eventual rise to power by pro-Iranian Shia factions i. Islamic Dawa Party and Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq led to the normalisation of relations between the two countries. Former Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki has made several state visits to Iran since and expressed sympathy with Iran over its nuclear energy program. Iran is today Iraq's largest trading partner. The relationship between the two countries is strong in part due to the fact that both governments operate on a Shi'ite system of governance.
Iran has an embassy in Baghdad and four consulate generals in Basrah , Sulaymaniyah , Erbil and Karbala. Iraq has an embassy in Tehran and three consulate generals in Kermanshah , Ahvaz and Mashhad. Sargon of Akkad r. Sargon's vast empire is known to have extended from Elam to the Mediterranean sea, including Mesopotamia, parts of modern-day Iran and Syria, and possibly parts of Anatolia and the Arabian peninsula. A salient feature of the dynasty is its establishment of the earliest known law code after the Code of Urukagina —the Code of Ur-Nammu.
During King Shulgi 's reign, many significant changes occurred. He took steps to centralize and standardize the procedures of the empire. He is credited with standardizing administrative processes, archival documentation, the tax system, and the national calendar. The last Sumerian dynasty ended after an Elamite invasion in BC. From this point on, with the growing Akkadian presence in the region , the Sumerian language declined, after more than three thousand years of cultural identity, as the population increasingly adopted Akkadian.
Future Babylonian Kings carried the title 'King of Sumer and Akkad', however, for some fourteen centuries to come. The title would also be claimed by Cyrus of Persia in the 6th century BC. The Neo-Assyrian Empire — BC was a multi-ethnic state composed of many peoples and tribes of different origins.
During this period, Aramaic was made an official language of the empire, alongside the Akkadian language. In the preceding Middle Assyrian period 14th to 10th century BC , Assyria had been a minor kingdom of northern Mesopotamia northern Iraq , competing for dominance with its southern Mesopotamian rival Babylonia. In BC, the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal leveled the Elamite capital city of Susa during a war in which the inhabitants apparently participated on an opposing side.
A tablet unearthed in by Austen Henry Layard in Nineveh reveals Ashurbanipal as an "avenger", seeking retribution for the humiliations the Elamites had inflicted on the Mesopotamians over the centuries. In the golden age of Babylon , Nabopolassar was intent on conquering from the pharaoh Necho II who was still hoping to restore Assyrian power the western provinces of Syria, and to this end dispatched his son Nebuchadnezzar II with a powerful army westward. In the ensuing Battle of Carchemish in BC, the Egyptian army was defeated and driven back, and Syria and Phoenicia were brought under the sway of Babylon.
Nabopolassar died in August of that year, and Nebuchadrezzar II returned home to Babylon to ascend to the throne. After the defeat of the Cimmerians and Scythians , all of Nebuchadrezzar's expeditions were directed westwards, although a powerful neighbour lay to the North; the cause of this was that a wise political marriage with Amytis of Media , the daughter of the Median king, had ensured a lasting peace between the two empires.
Though Babylonia was annexed by the rising Persian Empire in BC, the Sumero—Akkadian culture of the Mesopotamians significantly influenced the succeeding empires of the Indo-Iranian tribes of the Medes and the Persians. Cyrus entered Babylon and presented himself as a traditional Mesopotamian monarch, restoring temples and releasing political prisoners.
Following Cyrus's death, a brief period of Babylonian unrest ensued that climaxed in B. Under the Seleucids and the Parthians the site of the Mesopotamian capital moved a little to the north on the Tigris —to Seleucia and Ctesiphon.
Iran–Iraq relations - Wikipedia
It is indeed symbolic that these new foundations were built from the bricks of ancient Babylon , just as later Baghdad , a little further upstream, was built out of the ruins of the Sassanian double city of Seleucia-Ctesiphon. Between and BC, the Iranian leader, Darius the Great , reimposed political stability in Babylon and ushered in a period of great economic prosperity. His greatest achievements were in road building, which significantly improved communication among the provinces, and in organizing an efficient bureaucracy.
Darius's death in B. The Iranians violently quelled the uprising, and the repression that followed severely damaged Babylon's economic infrastructure. The first Iranian kings to rule Iraq followed Mesopotamian land-management practices conscientiously. Trade also was greatly reduced during this period. The established trade route from Sardis to Susa did not traverse Babylonia , and the Iranian rulers, themselves much closer to the Orient, were able to monopolize trade from India and other eastern points.
As a result, Babylonia and Assyria , which together formed the ninth satrapy of the Persian Empire , became economically isolated and impoverished. Their poverty was exacerbated by the extremely high taxes levied on them: Iranian rule lasted for more than years, from B. During this time, large numbers of Iranians were added to Mesopotamia's ethnically diverse population. The flow of Iranians into Iraq, which began during the reign of the Achaemenids , initiated an important demographic trend that would continue intermittently throughout much of Iraqi history.
Another important effect of Iranian rule was the disappearance of the Mesopotamian languages and the widespread use of Aramaic , the official language of the empire. By the fourth century B. Thus, when the Iranian forces stationed in Babylon surrendered to Alexander in B. Alexander quickly won Babylonian favor when, unlike the Achaemenids, he displayed respect for such Babylonian traditions as the worship of their chief god, Marduk. Alexander also proposed ambitious schemes for Babylon. He planned to establish one of the two seats of his empire there and to make the Euphrates navigable all the way to the Persian Gulf , where he planned to build a great port.
Alexander's grandiose plans, however, never came to fruition. Returning from an expedition to the Indus River , he died in Babylon; most probably from malaria contracted there in B. In the politically chaotic period after Alexander's death, his generals fought for and divided up his empire.
The Parthians were able to control all trade between the East and the Greco—Roman world. For the most part, they chose to retain existing social institutions and to live in cities that already existed. Here on what they dated for deaf ira cannibalize or fluoresce nervily. Retrieved 4, post previous post dates in australia. Cambodia ay pangkat 2.
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Before Iraq faced economic sanctions from the UN, it already had an advanced and successful Arab education system. At the turn of the millennium, many countries, including Iraq, attempted to take part in the Millennium Development Goals as a way to help underdeveloped countries prosper. In Iraq, one of the goals was for education to be universally available for both boys and girls at the primary level.
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In general, the education of Iraq has been improving since the MDGs were implemented. However, the dramatic increase of the number of students in primary education has had some negative and straining effects for the education system. At the same time, UNICEF investigated portions of spending for education and found that some of the money has gone to waste.
Many of those people who dropout or have to repeat a grade do not see the economic cost for long term results. Other statistics show that regional differences can attribute to lower or higher enrollment rates for children in primary education. There are also the differing enrollment rates between boys and girls. Although the numbers suggest a dramatic increase of enrollment rates for primary education in total, a large number of children still remain out of the education system. About , of internally displaced children are not in the education system.
With the overall increase of enrollment rates, there continues to be a large strain on the resources for education. Baathist ideology was removed from curricula and there were substantial increases in teacher salaries and training programs, which the Hussein regime neglected in the s. Education is mandatory only through to the sixth grade, after which a national examination determines the possibility of continuing into the upper grades.
In , obstacles to further reform were poor security conditions in many areas, a centralised system that lacked accountability for teachers and administrators, and the isolation in which the system functioned for the previous 30 years. According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities , the top-ranking universities in the country are the University of Dohuk th worldwide , the University of Baghdad th and Babylon University th. Iraq is known primarily for its rich maqam heritage which has been passed down orally by the masters of the maqam in an unbroken chain of transmission leading up to the present.
The maqam al-Iraqi is considered to be the most noble and perfect form of maqam. Al-maqam al-Iraqi is the collection of sung poems written either in one of the sixteen meters of classical Arabic or in Iraqi dialect Zuhayri. Early in the 20th century, many of the most prominent musicians in Iraq were Jewish. At the nightclubs of Baghdad, ensembles consisted of oud, qanun and two percussionists, while the same format with a ney and cello were used on the radio. The most famous early composer from Iraq was Ezra Aharon , an oud player, while the most prominent instrumentalist was Daoud Al-Kuwaiti.
Important cultural institutions in the capital include the Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra — rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted during the Occupation of Iraq but have since returned to normal. The National Theatre of Iraq was looted during the invasion, but efforts are underway to restore it. The live theatre scene received a boost during the s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. As many as 30 cinemas were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions.
Baghdad also features a number of museums including the National Museum of Iraq — which houses the world's largest and finest collection of artefacts and relics of Ancient Iraqi civilisations; some of which were stolen during the Occupation of Iraq. The capital, Ninus or Nineveh , was taken by the Medes under Cyaxares , and some years after Xenophon passed over its site, then mere mounds of earth. It remained buried until , when Botta and Layard discovered the ruins of the Assyrian cities. In these cities are found fragments of several great buildings which seem to have been palace-temples.
They were constructed chiefly of sun-dried bricks , and all that remains of them is the lower part of the walls, decorated with sculpture and paintings, portions of the pavements, a few indications of the elevation, and some interesting works connected with the drainage. After the end of the full state control in , there were a period of significant growth in the broadcast media in Iraq. Immediately, and the ban on satellite dishes is no longer in place, and by mid, according to a BBC report, there were 20 radio stations from 0.
Significantly, there have been many of these newspapers in numbers disproportionate to the population of their locations. For example, in Najaf , which has a population of ,, is being published more than 30 newspapers and distributed. Iraqi media expert and author of a number of reports on this subject, Ibrahim Al Marashi, identifies four stages of the US invasion of Iraq in where they had been taking the steps that have significant effects on the way for the later of the Iraqi media since then.